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This đánh giá was commissioned by the Food Standards Agency lớn examine the current research evidence on:

• the extent và nature of food promotion lớn children

• the effect, if any, that this promotion has on their food knowledge, preferences và behaviour.

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A Children’s food promotion is dominated by television advertising, và the great majority of this promotes the so-called ‘Big Four’ of pre-sugared breakfast cereals, soft-drinks, confectionary & savoury snacks. In the last ten years advertising for fast food outlets has rapidly increased. There is some evidence that the dominance of television has recently begun to wane. The importance of strong, global branding reinforces a need for multi-faceted communications combining television with merchandising, ‘tie-ins’ & point of sale activity. The advertised diet contrasts sharply with that recommended by public health advisors, and themes of fun and fantasy or taste, rather than health and nutrition, are used lớn promote it to children. Meanwhile, the recommended diet gets little promotional support.

B There is plenty of evidence that children notice và enjoy food promotion. However, establishing whether this actually influences them is a complex problem. The đánh giá tackled it by looking at studies that had examined possible effects on what children know about food, their food preferences, their actual food behaviour (both buying and eating), & their health outcomes (eg. Obesity or cholesterol levels). The majority of studies examined food advertising, but a few examined other forms of food promotion. In terms of nutritional knowledge, food advertising seems lớn have little influence on children’s general perceptions of what constitutes a healthy diet, but, in certain contexts, it does have an effect on more specific types of nutritional knowledge. For example, seeing soft drink and cereal adverts reduced primary aged children’s ability lớn determine correctly whether or not certain products contained real fruit.

C The reviews also found evidence that food promotion influences children’s food preferences và their purchase behaviour. A study of primary school children, for instance, found that exposure lớn advertising influenced which foods they claimed lớn like; and another showed that labelling & signage on a vending machine had an effect on what was bought by secondary school pupils. A number of studies have also shown that food advertising can influence what children eat. One, for example, showed that advertising influenced a primary class’s choice of daily snack at playtime.

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D The next step, of trying lớn establish whether or not a liên kết exists between food promotion và diet or obesity, is extremely difficult as it requires research khổng lồ be done in real world settings. A number of studies have attempted this by using amount of television viewing as a proxy for exposure to television advertising. They have established a clear link between television viewing và diet, obesity, & cholesterol levels. It is impossible to say, however, whether this effect is caused by the advertising, the sedentary nature of television viewing or snacking that might take place whilst viewing. One study resolved this problem by taking a detailed diary of children’s viewing habits. This showed that the more food adverts they saw, the more snacks và calories they consumed.

E Thus the literature does suggest food promotion is influencing children’s diet in a number of ways. This does not amount khổng lồ proof; as noted above with this kind of research, incontrovertible proof simply isn’t attainable. Nor vì all studies point lớn this conclusion; several have not found an effect. In addition, very few studies have attempted khổng lồ measure how strong these effects are relative to lớn other factors influencing children’s food choices. Nonetheless, many studies have found clear effects và they have used sophisticated methodologies that make it possible lớn determine that i) these effects are not just due to lớn chance; ii) they are independent of other factors that may influence diet, such as parents’ eating habits or attitudes; & iii) they occur at a brand & category level.

F Furthermore, two factors suggest that these findings actually downplay the effect that food promotion has on children. First, the literature focuses principally on television advertising; the cumulative effect of this combined with other forms of promotion and sale is likely to be significantly greater. Second, the studies have looked at direct effects on individual children, and understate indirect influences. For example, promotion for fast food outlets may not only influence the child, but also encourage parents to lớn take them for meals & reinforce the idea that this is a normal and desirable behaviour.

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G This does not amount lớn proof of an effect, but in our view does provide sufficient evidence to lớn conclude that an effect exists. The debate should now shift khổng lồ what action is needed, và specifically khổng lồ how the power of commercial kinh doanh can be used lớn bring about improvements in young people’s eating.